Lauri Hannikainen, Scientific Member of CIFILE, Professor emeritus, International Law University of Helsinki, Finland

Social Profile:

University of Helsinki: www.researchportal.helsinki.fi/en/persons/lauri-hannikainen

Wikipedia: www.fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lauri_Hannikainen


  1. Education and academic and other qualifications

Lauri Hannikainen graduated from the Faculty of Law of University of Helsinki in 1966 (LL.M) and received Licenciate of Law degree from the same University in 1971. He studied in 1971-1974 in the United States and received Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy degree from Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, which is a joint institution of Tufts University and Harvard University in Boston, in 1974.  His Doctorate in Law (LL.D) he received from University of Lapland (Finland) in 1989. The title of his dissertation was Peremptory Norms (Jus Cogens) in International Law – Historical Development, Criteria, Present Status, 781 p.


III. Professional activities

  • Present positions

Lauri Hannikainen retired from his job as Professor of International Law at the University of Turku in 2009 and is, thus, an Emeritus Professor. He is currently affiliated with the Eric Castren Institute for International Law and Human Rights, Helsinki University, as a research fellow.


  1. b) Work at national level

Lauri Hannikainen was in the Foreign Service of Finland in1966-1973. After that until 1999 he was researcher at the Academy of Finland and researcher and teacher at various Finnish universities. In 1999-2001 he acted as Director of the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, University of Lapland. In 2003 he was appointed as Professor of International Law at Turku University.

He was Vice-chairperson of the Finnish League for Human Rights in 1982-93 and a member of its Governing Board between 1979-82 and 1994-1999. From1994 until 2007 he was Chairperson of the Finnish Branch of Minority Rights Group International and after that a member (even now). In 2000-2 he served as legal expert of the National Advisory Board for International Human Rights Affairs and the National Board against Racism. He is continuously member of the Governing Board of the Finnish Branch of International Law Association.


  1. c) International Work

Lauri Hannikainen was a member of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance at Council of Europe in 2000-2014. He is member of the Editorial Boards of Nordic Journal of International Law and of Polar Law Review, and member of the Advisory Board of the Finnish Yearbook of International Law and between 2001 and 2011 he was member of the Editorial Board of Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe (ECMI, Flensburg). In the 1990’s he served the Finnish correspondent of the Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law. He has been used as an expert of minority rights by the Council of Europe and the OSCE.

  1. Publications (selected list)


– L. Hannikainen, “Peremptory Norms (Jus Cogens) in International Law – Historical Development, Criteria, Present Status”, Helsinki,1988, 781 p.

– L. Hannikainen, “Ahvenanmaan itsehallinnon ja ruotsinkielisyyden kansainoikeudelliset perusteet”, 1993, 182 p. (International Legal Foundations of the Autonomy and Swedish Character of the Åland Islands). An updated version in Swedish: “De folkrättsliga grunderna för Ålands självstyrelse och svenskspråkighet”, Turku, 2004, 100 p.

– L. Hannikainen, R. Hanski and A. Rosas, “Implementing Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts. The Case of Finland.”, 1991:

  1. Hannikainen, The Finnish Civil War 1918 and Its Aftermath, p. 8-40.
  2. Hannikainen, Finnish United Nations Forces, p. 102-108.
  3. Hannikainen, Implementation of International Humanitarian Law in Finnish Law, p. 114-145.

– L. Hannikainen & F. Horn (eds.), “Autonomy and Demilitarization in International Law the Åland Islands in Changing European Context”, Kluwer Law International, The Hague, 1997, 346 p.

  1. Hannikainen, The International Legal Basis of the Autonomy and Swedish Character of the Åland Islands, p. 57-84.

– P. Hernesniemi & L. Hannikainen: “The Roma Minorities in the Nordic and Baltic Countries”, Juridica Lapponica 24,  Rovaniemi, 2000, 100 p.

– L. Hannikainen & K.S: Sajjadpour (eds.), “Dialogue among Civilizations – The Case of Finnish-Iranian Human Rights Expert Dialogue”, Rovaniemi, 2002, 175 p.

  1. Hannikainen, The Rights of Minorities and Dialogue among Civilizations and Cultures, p. 133-155.

– L. Hannikainen, ”Kansainvälisen oikeuden käsikirja”, 2014, 272 p. (Handbook on International Law).


Articles (starting only from 1994):

– L. Hannikainen, The Continued Validity of the Demilitarised and Neutralised Status of the Åland Islands, “Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht”, Vol. 54, 3-4/1994, p. 614-651.

– L. Hannikainen, The Case of East Timor from the Perspective of Jus Cogens, in “International Law and the Question of East Timor”, 1995, p. 103-118.

– L. Hannikainen, The Status of Minorities, Indigenous Peoples and Immigrant and Refugee Groups in Four Nordic States, “Nordic Journal of International Law”, Vol. 66, 1/1996, p. 1-71.

– L. Hannikainen, Self-Determination and Autonomy in International Law, in “Autonomy: Applications and Implications”, in Markku Suksi (ed.), The Hague: Kluwer Law International,1998, p. 79-96.

– L. Hannikainen, The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), in “New Trends in Discrimination Law”, Turku, 1999, p. 177-220.

– L. Hannikainen, The World after 11 September 2001: Is the Prohibition of the Use of Force Disintegrating?, in “Nordic Cosmopolitanism, Essays in International Law for Martti Koskenniemi”, eds. Jarna Petman & Jan Klabbers, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2003, p. 445-467.

– L. Hannikainen, Legal position of minorities in today’s Austria, in particular in Jörg Haider’s Carinthia, in “Krisensicherung und Humanitärer Schutz – Crisis Management and Humanitarian Protection”, in Horst Fischer (ed.), 2004, p. 195-220.

– L. Hannikainen, Article 19, in Weller, M. (ed.): “The Rights of Minorities in Europe – A Commentary on the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities”, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 519-534.

– L. Hannikainen, Legal Position of Asylum Seekers in Austria, in Grimheden, J. & Ring, R. (eds.): “Human Rights Law: From Dissemination to Application”, 2006, p. 289-310.

– L. Hannikainen, The Collective Factor as a Promoter of Customary International Law. “Baltic Yearbook of International Law”, Vol. 6, 2006, p. 125-141.

– S. Egharevba & L. Hannikainen, Exploring Police Relations with the Immigrant Minority in the Context of Racism and Discrimination: A View from Turku, Finland. “African Journal of Criminology & Justice Studies” Vol. 1, 2005, p. 93-135.

– L. Hannikainen, Legal Nature of Minority Rights as Part of Human Rights, Limitations, Derogations, Reservations, and Interpretive Statements. In Weller, M. (ed.): “Universal Minority Rights: Commentary on the Jurisprudence of Universal Courts and Treaty Bodies”. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, p. 27-48.

– L. Hannikainen, The Case of Western Sahara from the Perspective of Jus Cogens. In: Arts, K. & Pinto Leite, P. (eds.): “International Law and the Question of Western Sahara”. Leiden, 2007, p. 59-78.

– L. Hannikainen, Developments of Jus Cogens in International Law in the Post ‘Cold War’ Years, in Particular in Human Rights Law. In “Theory and Practice of Contemporary International Law”. Tbilisi, 2007, p. 39-60.

– L. Hannikainen & A. Nuorgam, Cross-Border Cooperation of the Northern Indigenous Saami People, “Europa Ethnica”, Vol. 65, 3-4/2008, p. 90-96.

– L. Hannikainen, Juridically Solid, Politically …. What? Personal Reflections on the German Approach to International Law, German Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 50, 2007, p. 431-444.

– L. Hannikainen, L. 2008: Muslimisiirtolaisten uskontopohjaiset oikeudet Länsi-Euroopan maissa – rajoitetaanko niitä liiaksi? (Religious human rights of Muslim immigrants in Western Europe – Are there too many limitations?), in ”Yksilön oikeusasema Euroopan unionissa, Juhlakirja Allan Rosas”, eds. Kaila H., Pirjatanniemi, E. & Suksi, M., Turku, 2008, p. 81-94.

– L. Hannikainen, Cultural Autonomy – and Some Related Aspects of Territorial Autonomy, in “Managing Diversity – Protection of Minorities in International Law”, ed. by Thürer, D. & Kedzia, Z., Zürich, 2009, p. 193-205.

– L. Hannikainen & A. Kärkkäinen, Etelä-Ossetian elokuun 2008 sota kansainvälisen oikeuden näkökulmasta: Oliko Venäjällä oikeus reagoida asevoimin?, Kosmopolis 39, 3/2009, p. 7-27. (The war of Southern Ossetia in August 2008 from the perspective of international law: Did Russia have the right to react by armed force?)

– L. Hannikainen, L., Monitoring against Discrimination and Xenophobia – The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), in “International Human Rights Monitoring Mechanisms”, ed. by Alfredsson G. et al., Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, s. 541-546.

– L. Hannikainen, The Åland Islands and the Right of Self-Determination – Past, Present and Future, in “Regionalisation – Strengthening or Subversion of the National States?”ed. by Franz Schausberger, Salzburg, 2010, p. 59-81.

– L. Hannikainen, Dialogue Between States and International Human Rights Monitoring Organs – Especially the European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance, in “Making Peoples Heard”, ed. by A. Eide, J. Th. Möller & I. Ziemele, Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2011, p. 323-340.

– L. Hannikainen, Military Occupation of Eastern Carelia by Finland in 1941-1944: Was International Law Pushed Aside?, in “Searching for a ‘Principle of Humanity’ in International Humanitarian Law”, ed. by Kjetil Mujezinovic Larsen et al., Cambridge University Press, 2012, p. 183-205.

– L. Hannikainen, Ihmisoikeudet sodissa ja kriiseissä, in ”Ihmisoikeuksien käsikirja”, 2013, p. 46-87. (Human rights in armed conflicts and crises).

– L. Hannikainen, To Be a Member of an International Human Rights Organ- What is It Like? In “Polis und Kosmopolis – Festchrift für Daniel Thürer”, 2015, p. 225-236.

– L. Hannikainen, How Serious Are the Violations of Minorities’ Linguistic Rights in Contemporary Europe? In “Integration and Exclusion”, ed. by Elzbieta Kuzborska, 2015, p. 65-84.

– L. Hannikainen & T. Lundstedt, Kansainvälisen oikeuden rooli nyky-Venäjän ulkopolitiikassa, Puolustusministeriö 2016, 82 p. (Role of international law in the foreign policy of contemporary Russia).

– T. Lundstedt & L. Hannikainen, Ajavatko Venäjän perustelut Krimin valtaukselle sen kansainvälisoikeudellisen doktriinin umpikujaan? Oikeus 4/2016, p. 445-465. (Annexation of Crimea in light of the international law doctrine of the Russian Federation).


  1. Language skills

Finnish: mother tongue; English: fluent; Swedish: fluent; German: satisfactory; French: a little.